充分挖掘各种教学资源 创设语法课的教学情境

2017-02-08 11:38:00
河南省郑州市第十六中学 昝亚娟
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摘要:基于教学目标创设教学情境成为当今教师面临的一个重要研究课题。研究教学情境创设使教师成为教学资源的开发者,既突出了学生的主体作用,又有利于促进学生的身心健康发展。创设英语语法课教学情境的方法有:充分利用教材资源创设教学情境,利用经典故事创造教学情境,利用英语歌曲创设教学情境,利用英语电影创设教学情境,利用生活经历创设教学情境

一、什么是教学情境

教学情境是指在课堂教学的过程中,教师根据教学内容和学生的心理特点,营造一种学习氛围,使学生能很快进入探究知识的情境之中,促进学生去体验、感知、探究,主动建构知识,使课堂教学活动顺利开展。教学情境的创设可在一节课的开始中间或结尾,也可贯穿于一节课的始终。

二、语法创设教学情境的必要性?

传统的英语语法课对教学情境的创设没有给与足够的重视。在课堂上,教师的主要任务是传授知识,学生被动地接受知识语法课的传统教学模式3P模式,即“呈现(Presentation)——练习(Practice)——输出(Production)”。它的理论基础是行为主义学习理论,又称“刺激—反应”理论。行为主义学习理论强调学习是一个不间断的“刺激——反应——强化”的过程。在这个过程中教师起着控制和操纵的中心作用,?强调教学过程以教师中心,忽略了学生的主动性,不利于调动学生的积极性。

根据建构主义学习理论,学生的知识不是单纯通过教师的传授获得的,而是学习者在一定的情境中,在教师的引导下主动构建的。由此可见,在语法教学的过程中,教师应积极创设教学情境。以知识建构为目标,以情境创设为手段,创设有利于学生学习的教学环境,引导学生在一定出学习情境中,主动体验、感知和建构知识,发展语言能力。?因此基于教学目标创设教学情境成为当今教师面临的一个重要研究课题,教师的情境创设能力直接影响课堂教学的成败。

三、教学情境创设的意义

1. 教师成为教学资源的开发者

《高中英语课程标准》(实验)指出:“教师要充分利用现代教育技术,开发英语教学资源,拓宽学生学习渠道,改进学生的学习方式,提高学生的学习效率因此,设计教学方案中,教师创造地使用教材,挖掘各种教学资源,努力为学生营造一种学习氛围,激发学生强烈的求知欲和热情,激发学生主动参与感知体验和构建知识的过程。?

2. 突出学生的主体作用

传统的语法课通常采用灌输式填鸭式课堂教学模式,不利于发挥学生的主动性,抑制了学生自主学习能力的发展。苏联教育家苏霍姆林斯基说:在人的心灵深处, 都有一种根深蒂固的需要, 就是希望感到自己是一个发现者、研究者、探索者。置身于教学情境中的学生很容易产生探究的愿望,他们主动探究、质疑和讨论,积极构建知识,成为积极的学习者。

?3. 促进学生的身心健康发展

叶澜教授在《让课堂焕发出生命活力》中说:课堂教学应被看作是人生中的一段重要的生命经历,是他们生命中的有意义的构成部分。通过创设一种有意义的教学情境,教师激发学生主动参与教学过程,通过感知、体验和探究知识,在宽松、和谐、愉悦的氛围中构建知识,把认识活动与情感活动有机地结合起来,开发学生潜能和特长,促进学生的身心健康发展。?

四、英语语法课如何教学情境创设

如果缺乏生动有趣的教学情境,语法课上起来就会枯燥无味,学生很容易产生厌学情绪,导致教学效率低下为了提高英语语法课的教学效率,根据新课改的教学理念和本人的教学经验我们可从以下几个方面来创设教学情境:?

1. 充分利用教材资源创设教学情境

有些教师缺乏教学的创造性,只局限于照本念经。所以教材上有什么,他们就讲什么,没有充分地利用教材中的教学资源创设教学情境。其实,根据教学的需要,我们重新利用教材中的教学资源,教材中的文本进行合理的改编,来创设教学情境。例如:人教Book 3 Unit 3 的标题是The Million Pound Bank Note。课文节选自19世纪美国着名小说家马克·吐温的剧本《百万英镑》。由于单元语法项目是名词性从句(宾语从句和标语从句),我们可把剧本进行改编,利用学生熟悉剧本内容的优势,在连接词处挖空,让学生进行短文填空,学习名词性从句的用法。??

My name is?Henry. I am now in London. The fact is that?I was born in America. The reason why I came to London is?that?I love adventures. That was why?I sailed out of the bay one day and got lost at sea. Fortunately?I was taken to London by ship by accident. My worry was how?I could make a living here.

The other day, I was wandering in the street when?two wealthy brothers saw me and asked me some questions. Their concern was whether?I had any friends or relatives in London. The reason why they gave me an?envelop?was that they made a bet on me. They were wondering?whether?my life would be changed by the million pound bank note. To be honest, I needed?the money?badly because I was very hungry.

2.?利用经典故事创造教学情境

教师可用一些学生耳熟能详的经典故事来创造语法教学情境,不仅可以激发学生的学习兴趣,而且能唤起学生的美好情感,起到一箭双雕之效。例如:教师可以利用丹麦着名童话作家安徒生的《卖火柴的小女孩》(The Little Match Girl)来创设学习状语从句的教学情境。教师事先在连接词处挖空,让学生读短文,然后填出连词。

The story happens on a cold?New Year's Eve. A?poor little girl is trying to sell matches in the street. She is trembling from cold because?it is snowing hard. However, she is afraid to go home because?her father will beat her for not selling any matches. She has no choice but sit down in a street corner.

The girl lights the matches so that?she can warm herself. In their glow she sees several lovely visions(美景), including a?Christmas tree?and a holiday feast. The girl looks up and sees a?shooting star. Then she remembers her dead grandmother saying that when?you a falling star, it means someone is dying and is going to?Heaven. As?she lights the next match, she sees a vision of her grandmother, the only person who has treated her with love and kindness. She strikes one match after another to keep the vision of her grandmother alive for as long as?she can.

After she ran out of matches, the girl dies, and her grandmother carries her soul to Heaven. The next morning, passers-by find the child dead in the street and feel pity for her, although?they had not shown kindness to her before her death.

?Andersen intended this to be a happy ending, as?the girl is happy in Heaven with her grandmother and God, never to suffer in poverty again. Some more modern versions have changed the ending, so that?a kind family rescues the girl from the cold and gives her good food, warm clothing, and a soft bed.

3. 利用英语电影创设教学情境

????《秘密花园》是一部内容积极向上的英语电影,非常适合青少年观看。我们可利用《秘密花园》创设一个学习非谓语动词的教学情境。在布置学生课下观看这部电影后,让学生写出影评或观后感,尽量使用一些含有非谓语动词的句子。或者我们事先写好一段影评,挖去文中的非谓语动词,让学生来填出动词形式。由于对故事情节比较熟悉,因而学生非常喜欢做这样的练习。

Mary Lennox is a?10-year-old girl born?in India. She loses?her parents in an earthquake?and is returned?to England to live?at her uncle's his home in Yorkshire.

Mary seldom?meets her uncle Archibald Craven?because he is?still feeling sad?for his wife who died?by accident?ten years before. Neglected?once again, Mary?begins exploring?the manor(庄园) aimlessly?and discovers a garden that has been locked?for ten years. Helped?by?her maid Martha’s brother?Dickon, she?plants many plants in?the garden, and discovers some other secrets of the manor.

Mary finds her?cousin?called?Colin, a sickly boy who has been told to remain?in bed out of the daylight all the time. Once Mary and?Dickon?have brought the garden back to life,?they decide?to take?Colin to the garden, where they have fun playing?together.

After spending?some time?in the garden,?Colin has improved his health. When Mr.?Craven receives a letter from Martha's mother, he takes the opportunity to come?home. When he walks to the garden, he?hears some children talking and laughing, finds the door unlocked, and is shocked to see?the garden full of life.?The servants were so surprised at the sight of Mr. Craven walking?back to the manor with?Colin running?beside him.

4. 利用英语歌曲创设教学情境

在英语课堂播放一些脍炙人口的英语歌曲,不仅能提高英语语法学习的积极性,而且还能帮助学生了解西方文化。更重要的是,英语歌词中的经典句子提供了语法教学的绝佳情境。例如,美国情歌王子理查德·马克斯(Richard Marx)自己弹唱的一首英语歌曲?《此情可待》(Right Here Waiting)歌词中有很多状语从句。让学生一边欣赏这首歌曲,一边学习状语从句,简直是一种听觉盛宴。
??????Oceans apart day after day,

And I slowly go insane.?
??????I hear your voice on the line,

But it doesn't stop the pain. ?
??????If I see you next to never,

How can we say forever??
???

Wherever you go,

Whatever you do,

I will be right here waiting for you?
Whatever it takes

Or how my heart breaks,

I will be right here waiting for you?

再如,着名美国歌手迈克尔·波顿(Michael·Bolton)用略带沙哑的嗓音演唱的英语歌曲This is the way为学习定语从句提供很好的教学情境。借助于视频中精彩的画面和强烈的节凑,充分调动学生的各种器官参与学习过程,大大提高学习的效果,也使学生体验语法学习的快乐。

This is the way that?we live
This is the world where?our dreams survive
Fight for the love that?we give
The love?that?we make?is all in the way that we live
The way?that?we live, the way that?we live
In our lives there’s so much useless information
The truth is as simple as the air?that?we breathe
So many souls with the need for human affirmation
You and I choose to believe we are free!
5. 利用生活经历创设教学情境

其实,教师和学生的日常生活也是创设语法课教学情境资源。例如:我校最近邀请2015年感动中国人物之一王宽做了以“大爱无疆”为主题的一个专题报告会。笔者根据这段生活经历,布置学生写一篇英语作文,记述这个非常有意义的活动。这项写作任务不仅让学生反思王宽报告会带给自己的影响,而且达到了复习一般过去时的教学目的。

Writing example:?

In order to encourage the students to learn to show concern about others, a lecture whose theme was “Always?Be Kind to Others”?was given on the lecture hall in my school last week. All the students and teachers participated in the activity. ?

The speaker was Wang Kuan, one of the ten people who moved China in 2015. He shared with us his personal experience in details. He has been taking care of some orphans with the help of his wife since he retired in 1988. He had to sing for the guests in the pubs in order to collect money for the orphans.

We were so deeply moved by Wang Kuan’s story that we are determined to help others to make the earth a better place. ?

将来进行时是学生在高中阶段学习的一个重要的语法项目。将来进行时主要表示将来某时间正在进行的动作,?或在将来某一时间开始并继续下去的动作。将来进行时的构成是“主语+will/shall be doing”教师可引导学生使用将来进行时大胆畅想未来的生活,然后与同学们分享自己的英语作文。

Writing example:?

It is very interesting to imagine what my life will be like in the future. I am sure that my life will be quite different from what it is now. ?

I will be 28 in ten years. I will be working?as?an architect and designing?fantastic buildings in different parts of the world. I?will be working?hard?and living?a happy life. I will be staying?at home with my wife and my children at weekends. In my spare time, I will be playing?music?to relax myself. I will be playing?Ping Pang to keep fit. ??

All in all, my life will be happy and colorful. I am looking forward to my new life.

总之,语法规则不是教师生硬地教给学生的,语言技能也不是教师传授给学生的。而是在适当的教学情境中,学生通过感知、体验和探究,总结出语法规则。在具体的语境中,反复应用所学语法规则表达思想。通过犯错误和自我纠正,逐步发展语言能力,最终形成语言技能。

新课改的不断推进为教师优化英语课堂教学提供了一个良好的平台,教育技术的逐步普及也使我们能够充分挖掘各种资源,优化教学的内容。如果教师能为学生营造有利于学习的各种教学情境,学生就能在课堂上主动感知语言,探究知识,通过讨论和质疑,使新旧知识之间建立一种联系。通过教师的点拨为学生拓展和梳理知识。在巩固练习后,进行深入的反思和总结,最终构建新的知识,形成语言能力。

本文为2015-2016学年郑州市教育科学研究课题《语法教学情境创设技能研究》(课题编号〔2015〕—ZJKZDS16001)的阶段性成果。

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